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The Etymological Connection Between Bahamut and Behemoth

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This is not an etymology blog. This is a video game history blog. However, in looking into the histories of things, we often end up examining the roots of the language we use to describe them. I think the intersection of the Final Fantasy versions of Bahamut, Behemoth, Leviathan and Kujata makes for a fun case study how language can evolve and mutate.


Bahamut vs. Behemoth: a battle for etymological supremacy.


In the world of the Final Fantasy games, Bahamut (バハムート or Bahamūto) is the king of dragons — a fierce beast whose favor must be won in order to get the benefit of his power. In the first game, he merely upgrades your party members’ classes when presented a notably mundane treasure: a rat’s tail. From Final Fantasy III onwards, Bahaut is a boss that the party must beat in battle before they obtain him as a summon. 

Like many enemy characters in that first Final Fantasy, Bahamut was borrowed more or less directly from Dungeons & Dragons. Greyhawk, released in 1975, was the first supplement to the original Dungeons & Dragons, and it introduced a dragon king character. And then the first Monster Manual — released in 1977, in support of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, released the same year — gave this character the proper name Bahamut.

One of the ways that Final Fantasy seems to be using a character concept specifically lifted from D&D as opposed to, let’s say, a generic dragon who also happens to be named Bahamut, is the fact that the first game also features Tiamat (ティアマット or Tiamatto), a decidedly non-benevolent dragon and the fiend of wind. Bahamut and Tiamat don’t interact in the game itself, but they’re the two most prominent dragons in it, and also Bahamut is good while Tiamat is evil. This would seem to reflect an element of the D&D lore stating that Tiamat is the malevolent queen of dragons and Bahamut’s anthesis. 

Even if that’s just a coincidence, however, D&D is also where the name Bahamut was first associated with dragons at all. The name was borrowed from Islamic cosmological lore, from one of the names of the furthest-down entity in the chain of figures that hold up the world. According to the thirteenth-century Persian scholar Zakariya al-Qazwini in his treatise Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing (a.k.a. Wonders of Creation, but that title is nowhere near is good), the world is held up by an angel standing on a gemstone slab. The angel, in turn, rests on the back of an ox, which in turn stands on Bahamut (بهموت, pronounced “Bahamoot,” with the emphasis on the second syllable), a monster suspended in water. 


In this illustration, (image via Wikipedia), Bahamut is depicted as a giant fish that is sometimes interpreted as a whale.


The scholars Yaqut al-Hamawi and Ibn al-Wardi give the name as Balhūt, and an alternate transcription gives the name as Bahamoot, but all versions of the name seem to correspond to another beast from Abrahamic scripture that should also be familiar to Final Fantasy players: the Behemoth. The Book of Job describes the Behemoth as being a powerful primeval monster, though one that walks on land and which is nothing like a giant fish.

[15] Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox.
[16] Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.
[17] He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together.
[18] His bones are as strong as pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron.
[19] He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.

It’s not clear if the animal being described is a real one or not. According to Etymonline, The Hebrew word בהמות (or b'hemoth) may be a “plural of intensity” of b’hemah, merely “beast,” but that Hebrew word might also be a folk etymology of the Egyptian loanword pehemau, literally meaning “water ox” but referring to the hippopotamus. (There exists the Russian word бегемо́т, or begemot, that also means “hippo.”) And while people supposing that the Book of Job is referring to a real-life animal have guessed that it might be a hippo, other guesses include rhinoceros, bison, or some kind of dinosaur. 

In English, behemoth came to mean “a large or powerful thing” in addition to the Biblical monster, and I think it’s somewhere between that the recurring Final Fantasy monster exists.


Fighting a Behemoth in FFIV’s Lunar Subterrane.


Although it does not appear in the original game, Amano artwork for that game shows the Warriors of Light fighting a winged purple beast that eventually showed up in Final Fantasy II and then in virtually every subsequent game, though without the wings. (That artwork would eventually materialize as the Behemoth King in Final Fantasy XV, wings and all.) 


Via the Final Fantasy Wiki.


They’re popular and well-known enough that they occasionally show up in non-Final Fantasy games. An entire sequence in Live a Live, for example, focuses around an alien creature getting loose on a spaceship. It’s referred to in game as “the Behemoth,” and it looks almost exactly like the Final Fantasy version, just green instead of purple.


It’s an extraterrestrial because it’s a canon immigrant from Final Fantasy.


So yes, to answer the question posed in this post’s title, there is an etymological link between the Final Fantasy versions of Bahamut and Behemoth… but isn’t it interesting that despite this shared source, one of these monsters was originally a giant fish while the other was clearly some kind of land animal? Well, here’s where it gets interesting — and we don’t even have to leave Final Fantasy lore to explore this connection further.

If you’ll recall, those scholars described the world being held by an angel, who is being supported by an ox, which is standing on the large fish. The bovine has a name too, though it varies according to who’s doing the translation. One name for it is Kuyūthā (كيوثاء), and it’s not merely a large bovine but often an inconceivably immense one, with eyes and legs and other body parts numbering thousands of times more than a typical bull or ox would have.  

There are a lot of variants of that name Kuyūthā, two of which should also be familiar to Final Fantasy players. In al-Qazwini’s writings, the creature is also given the names Kīyūbān (کیوبان) or Kibūthān (کبوثان). Going back to at least 1868, with Hermann Ethé’s translation of al-Qazwini’s text into German, it’s been speculated that these names are “corrupted text” and that the reference was instead meant to be about Leviathan, the demonic sea serpent that appears throughout the Bible and which may be a manifestation of an older chaos deity that might have connections to Tiamat. (More on that in the miscellaneous notes section.) In the world of Final Fantasy, Leviathan (リヴァイアサン or Rivaiasan) is a wholly separate character. Usually (but not always) male, Leviathan is the master of the sea who, like Bahamut, serves as a summon once defeated in battle.

However, in Jorge Luis Borges’ Book of Imaginary Beings, that original name, Kuyūthā, was rendered as Kuyata in the Spanish and then as Kujata in the 1969 English translation of the Spanish. And that name has a presence in Final Fantasy as well: Kujata (クジャタ, Kujata) is a bull-like enemy that debuted in Final Fantasy VII. It also serves as a summon, and though it has recurred subsequently, it’s not as popular as Bahamut and Leviathan. 

So looking at the mythology that inspired the Final Fantasy characters, we have two pairs of creatures: two water monsters (Bahamut and Leviathan) and two land monsters (Behemoth and Kuyūthā/Kujata). But if you pair them according to shared etymology, they split differently: on one side you have Bahamut and Behemoth and on the other it’s Leviathan and Kuyūthā/Kujata. How do we account for the fact that, at some point, a water monster became a land monster and vice versa?

Allegedly someone made a mistake, more or less. It’s been argued since at least 1961, per the Ars Orientalis article “The Iconography of a Kashan Luster Plate,” that the terms got swapped, with the error being indirectly blamed on the German writer Ferdinand Wüstenfeld. A footnote in the article explains, “The passage in [al-Qazwini] dealing with these ideas is [in] Wüstenfeld’s edition (where the names of the two animals are confused with each other and where the Leviathan appears in a corrupt Arabic form).” And that’s as solid an explanation as I can find: that someone, who may or may not be Ferdinand Wüstenfeld screwed up, and that mistake was recorded into the cultural record.

I would imagine it’s entirely possible that the mistake was made long before Wüstenfeld came along and that Wüstenfeld could have been accurately transcribing the mistake of someone previous, but that’s a matter for a historian with first-hand sources to determine. Being someone who speaks neither Arabic nor Persian, there’s only so much research I can do. Fatimah, one of two translators I work with on this site, is Kuwaiti/Irani-American and speaks Arabic. With the help of her mother, who speaks Persian, she looked into the matter but concluded, and this is a direct quote, “You, sir, need a scholar.” There probably is additional information regarding whether any text was corrupted or who in history swapped the terms and turned a water monster into a land monster. I am declining for the moment to bother anyone further with this, because let’s be honest: This is a site about old video games. 

I wanted to write about the history of Bahamut because it illustrates how cultural drift can end up creating a thing in a video game that’s very far from its source material. As a result of a series of mistakes, shifts in understanding and some creative liberties, an unfathomably massive fish, conceived of centuries ago as the base upon which the very cosmos rest, morphed into the king of dragons in a series of Japanese video games. Not only did this happen, but in fact it happened so successfully that a simple search for his name yields more results for this newer incarnation than the entity it borrowed its name from in the first place.

This conceptual shift parallels the change you can observe in tracing the etymology of its name, where what might have been a loanword for “hippopotamus” came to refer to not only the cosmological fish entity and the king of dragons but also, as a result of time and space and maybe some kind of old world typo, a primeval monster in the Bible and another one in that same line of Japanese video games. Things change a little, then a lot, and soon you have an entirely new concept that owes its existence to the first one but also now stands on its own.

That’s wild, and while I never get tired of sorting all this out, it’s just as awesome to just sit here and observe that it happened at all. 

Miscellaneous Notes

I’m going to continue to focus on Final Fantasy enemies that were drawn from D&D and then changed, whether as a result of a natural evolution or as a result of Square’s desire not to get sued for infringing on a copyright. (I haven’t written about how Square altered the design of one enemy after the original Japanese release of the first game, seemingly to avoid the danger of legal action, but I will get to it at some point.) In that vein, there’s a discussion to be had regarding how the D&D version of Tiamat has five heads. The Final Fantasy version, meanwhile, often has multiple heads — sometimes three, sometimes six, depending on the game, but often not five. Although Yoshitaka Amano’s concept art shows five, I wonder if the in-game sprite for that first game has six as a result of Square wanting to change the character design just enough to say, “See? Totally a different dragon, because different number of heads.” Curiously, the several ports of Final Fantasy II do show her with five heads, even if the original Famicom version only has four.


Because six heads are better than four.


Despite the similarity between the last syllables in Bahamut and Tiamat’s names, however, there doesn’t appear to be a shared etymology. Tiamat takes her name from a Mesopotamian sea goddess that is associated with primordial chaos and that is sometimes represented as a sea serpent or dragon. Her name allegedly traces back to tâmtu, an Akkadian word meaning “sea.” That said, both Tiamat and Leviathan are… related, in some way, whether as continuations or permutations, to older sea entities such as serpentine Lotan, from the Ugaritic series of stories about the god Ba’al.

So what’s the connection between Bahamut and the rat’s tail item you must present him in the first Final Fantasy? I don’t know, but I’m posting my best guess here in hopes that people will share theirs. The item itself is recurring in the series, but it it’s never associated with Bahamut again. The Japanese name, ネズミの尻尾 or nezumi no shippo, could mean “mouse’s tail” in addition to “rat’s tail,” but it doesn’t seem to imply that the item is anything other than that: a seemingly worthless thing that is nonetheless what the party must find in the Castle of Ordeals, a maze-like temple full of monsters and, in general, a real pain in the ass to venture through.


Screenshot from this playthrough of the Game Boy Advance remake of FF1.


In that sense, it’s maybe ironic that there is this seemingly disappointing treasure waiting at the end of this optional dungeon that requires extra effort to conquer. However, there’s a radish, of all things, that bears some discussion in trying to explain the nature of this item: the rat-tail radish (Raphanuys caudatus). Found today in southeast Asia, it is believed to have originated in China, and the Chinese name for it, 鼠尾蘿蔔, literally translates as “rat tail radish,” and it gets this name because the edible root looks a lot like just that. 

However, in other parts of the world, people saw this same vegetable and decided it looks like something else, because the same plant is known also as serpent radish or dragon’s tail radish. I don’t necessarily think this is what inspired the people at Square to invent an item that is associated with dragons and rats both. It might be more of a joke item — again, “ha ha, you worked hard and this treasure sucks, LOL” — but the fact that out of context a dragon’s tail and a rat tail could look a lot alike, out of context and disconnected from the animal that used to own it. 


Delicious tail vegetables! (Via.)


I suppose there is something minorly profound in that: a thing that might not seem special to you being exceedingly special to someone else. What might seem like a boring old rat tail to your Final Fantasy party is apparently something special to Bahamut, for reasons we may never know.

Here, for the record, is the footnote from Hermann Ethé’s translation of al-Qazwini’s original text that I believe is attempting to explain the confusion between the Persian words for Kīyūbān, Kibūthān, and Leviathan.


Do let me know if you can make sense of it.

I think this post has the record for the most languages mentioned so far of anything that’s gone up on this site. Nine, by my count.

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1 day ago
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Post-Cringe: Forspoken and the Self-Sabotage of the Smirking Protagonist

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Post-Cringe: Forspoken and the Self-Sabotage of the Smirking Protagonist

If you're on Twitter or frequent gaming forums, you have probably been unable to escape clips of Forspoken (Square-Enix studio Luminous' new open world action RPG) today. Just in case you spend your time better than me, though, here's a small collection of them:

There are many reasons that this has been so polarizing: frustration with a decade of "Whedonesque" Marvel dialog and the adjacent contraction the variety of films released into theaters; the absence of black writers on Forspoken; the public dismissal of Forspoken in contrast with the valorization of other projects that have white instead of black leads but are otherwise very similar in tone and style; the word "isekai" and how you relate to it, generally; the general emotional experience of life under capitalism; et cetera.

There's another reason I think, which is that a lot of people share their strong reactions without elaborating on or unpacking where those feelings come from. And the trade off that comes from performing funny dunks instead of considered critique is that it becomes easy for the person who disagrees with you to assume that you're just trolling. Or, maybe one step better than that, it's asumed they you're arguing in bad faith (when in fact, it's just that ages of being online has made us all feel like sharing our feelings in careful ways is just a waste of time because people are going to ignore what we actually said and cherry pick a way to tear into us anyway).

SO, at risk of discoursing, I'm going to weigh in on why this style of writing tends not to work for me. And let me be clear here: This is not me saying I think it shouldn't work for others. No one makes their own taste, and while it's something I beleive you can and should broaden and nurture, well, we cannot always broaden and nurture it as we please. So, if this hits for you, hell yeah, have fun. But I want to do more than call it cringe and move on. I want to explain why I sink into my seat a little when I watch these clips.

Let's focus on just the third one above, which I'll even re-embed here for ease:

Ok. So, what's happening in this clip, given what I know: The protagonist of Forspoken, Frey, has been transported from New York City to a weird mystical world called Athia that is consumed by a magical rot and ruled by a quartet of mystical, tyranical sorceress-queens, called Tantas. In this moment, she is restrained and confronted by one, who speaks to her in rhyme.

"Shit, alright, if you're gonna rhyme everything, just kill me now," responds Frey, hands in shackles. She isn't just being flippant, she's lampshading the artifice of this situation, calling attention to (and dismissing) the absurdity of a sorceress-queen who speaks in rhyme. People call this type of dialog Whedon-esque a lot, though the Marvel example I think of the most is that bit in the most recent Spider-Man where MCU Peter and his friends laugh at the idea of someone named "Doctor Otto Octavius." Both of these lines—and a great deal of similar smirking, snarking, wink-at-the-camera style comedy—miss for me in the same way: They feel ashamed of the world that the lines are being spoken in.

And I get it. I work in "genre" despite having a lot of high-falutin interests. I know the strange feeling of writing about orcs or robots or death gremlins or rhyming sorceress-queens by day, only to spend my free time consuming stories that are grounded and real and which shake my bones free from one another. And I also know the other half of this, which is that my work in genre spaces gets looked down on. These are not new types of feelings!  

But the thing is: When I sign up to go to the mystical world of Athia, ruled by four sorcerous Tantas and cursed by mysterious blight... I'm here for the artifice! I'm on board for ominious rhyming god-queens, and I'm not sure why Frey—for whom this is not artifice, and instead is her life, is not on board for it.

All of which is to say that for me, it's not so much that "the writing is cringe." It's that that Frey herself is cringing, and by proxy there is a sense that the writers are doing the same.

And listen, fellow writers: You do not need to take this defensive posture! You do not need to hit your finishing move in the middle of the ring, get the three count, and then look at the camera and say "you know this is fake, right?" You do not need to ensure the audience that you also get that this stuff isn't that serious. This shit we do is ascendent. Be fearless! Stick your chest out! Look at these characters that I thought looked dope enough that I put them at the top of this blog post! Stop no-selling them!

And you know, I haven't played the game, so maybe it does leave room for you to buy into its world and characters eventually. Some reviews have said that the game gets better by the end, after all. But the marketing has been filled with this shrugging posture, long before people started posting clips.

And they didn't have to! As an example of this, and I don't mean this as disrespect to the English voice actors in the clips going around, but like... check out this Japanese language trailer featuring the aforementioned sorceress-queens:

Is it a little over the top? No, it is unapologetically over the top. It's insisting that you pay attention to so much of what originally seemed so appealing about Forspoken, like its bold character design and big, bright magical effects. It makes me wonder just what else this game could have up its sleeves.

But when the protagonist rolls her eyes and laughs at one of these characters like she's faced with the clichés of yet-another-stock-standard-fantasy-world, it makes me doubt that the world does have anything unique to offer, and makes me instead wonder if I was wrong to ever imagine that it did.

I have no problem with laughing at yourself, but this instinct to undercut your own material is a big part of what puts me off about this style of writing (both here and in other extremely popular franchises across games, movies, TV, etc. I may be no-fun, but I'm also consistent). Unfortunately, I think a lot of folks have confused "a funny character" with "a character who doesn't take their own situation, no matter how perilous or interesting it is, seriously."

That's the situation in these clips. In this promo post from 2021, it says that the sorceress that Frey is facing in that cutscene is Prav, "the 'Tanta of Justice' who administered Athia’s judicial system before the Break ... with her uncanny ability to perceive untruths, [but who is now] a callous executioner with a warped sense of justice." But to be frank, if Frey doesn't give a fuck about her, why should I?  

Don't get me wrong, I'm not asking for full sincerity all of the time. This isn't quite me giving a directive to writers: "Take your worlds seriously, or else!" A lot of people do like this stuff. So go ahead, get that bag, have fun. But don't be surprised if the next time you do want your audience to care about a world you've painstakingly crafted or a character you've poured your heart into, they aren't sure whether nor not to take you seriously.

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Guillermo del Toro’s Inspiration Machine

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When the Academy Award-winning director Guillermo del Toro was a boy growing up in Guadalajara, his mother bought him a Victorian-style writing desk. “I kept my comic books in the drawers, my books and horror action figures on the shelves, and my writing and drawing stuff on the desk,” Del Toro recalled in a 2016 profile. “I guess that was the first, smallest version of my collection.”

As the director began to find success as an adult with his beautifully imagined, macabre fantasies, like Hellboy, Pan’s Labyrinth and Nightmare Alley, he was able to indulge his collecting instinct more seriously, amassing “a vast physical collection of strange and wonderful memorabilia.” Eventually, Del Toro’s objects became too much to manage.

As he explained in an NPR interview:

“We were living in a three-bedroom house and I magically had occupied four spaces. So it came to a point where the collection was much bigger than the family life. I was hanging up a picture, a really creepy painting by Richard Corben. My wife says, ‘That’s too close to the kitchen, the kids are gonna be freaked out.'”

So Del Toro took the natural next step: he bought a second house in the same neighborhood. His plan was to use the new residence to organize and store his growing collection and provide a quiet place for him to work. As an homage to Charles Dickens, he called it Bleak House.

By 2016, Bleak House contained over 10,000 items, including artwork, sculptures, artifacts and movies. It also featured thirteen different reference libraries. Housed in a room dedicated to a haunted mansion theme, for example, are Del Toro’s books on mythology, folklore, and fairy tales. The screening room boasts over 7,000 DVDs. One space includes a simulated rain storm that pours outside a fake window. This latter location is one of Del Toro’s favorite places to write.

What interests me about this story is less its eccentricity than its pragmatism.  As Del Toro explained in a video tour of the house, he was inspired by the original research library built at Disney Studios, and in particular, its philosophy that “when you create a group of extraordinary artists, you should definitely feed their imagination with all sorts of images.”

Del Toro designed Bleak House to fuel the creativity on which his career depends. “It’s here to try to provoke a sort of a shock to the system,” he said, “and aid in circulation of the lifeblood of imagination, which is curiosity.”

Truly deep work — the type that redefines genres — is truly hard. In such efforts, our brain needs all the help it can get.


In other news: in the most recent episode of my podcast, Deep Questions, I tackled thirteen questions in a row, including one on developing discipline and another on planning projects with unpredictable time demands. Are you listening to Deep Questions yet? If not, you should be!

The post Guillermo del Toro’s Inspiration Machine first appeared on Cal Newport.
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28 days ago
The LACMA had an exhibit of his collection, it’s incredible. I love the idea of surrounding yourself with things that inspire you.
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36 Things I Learned in 2022

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Inspired by Tom Whitwell’s annual list (here is 2022’s), I kept a list of interesting things I learned this year. There are supposed to be 52 things but I took much of the year off so you’ll have to manage with only 36. Enjoy!

  1. For the first time in history in 2020, the weight of things produced by humans (concrete, metals, plastic) was greater than the weight of the global living biomass.
  2. “It is physically impossible to exceed the 70-pound domestic weight limit for a USPS small flat rate box.”
  3. There is a species of fish called “boops boops”.
  4. In a recent experiment by a Turkish farmer, outfitting his cows with VR goggles that simulate being in a pasture upped milk production by 2 gallons per cow per day.
  5. It’s “just deserts”, not “just desserts”.
  6. The Sun has only rotated approximately 20 times around the galactic center.
  7. Of the estimated 1,300,000 to 1,750,000 people sent to the death camps of Sobibór, Bełżec, and Treblinka by the Nazis, “perhaps not more than 150” of them ended up surviving the war. 150. Not 150,000. 150. (From The Holocaust: A New History by Laurence Rees)
  8. A new streaming version of Fight Club released in China changed the ending from Tyler successfully bombing a large city to him being caught by the authorities.
  9. An astounding statistic: approximately 1 out of every 70 Americans 65 years and older has died of Covid-19 in the past three years.
  10. You might be surprised to learn that the crossword puzzle wasn’t invented until 1913. I was even more shocked to learn that the word search puzzle first appeared in 1968.
  11. The burpee exercise was invented by Royal Huddleston Burpee Sr.
  12. The Mediterranean Sea mostly dried up for over 600,000 years but took less than 2 years to completely refill, often at rates of 30 feet per day, by a river moving 1000 times more water per day than the Amazon.
  13. “15% of the searches we see every day have never been Googled before.”
  14. The word “bear” is actually derived from a euphemism for the animal…we don’t know what the original name was.
  15. QR codes “sprang from a lunchtime game of Go more than a quarter of a century ago”.
  16. Abraham Lincoln is the only US president to hold a patent.
  17. Due to the chaotic nature of weather, accurate forecasts of more than 2 weeks are impossible.
  18. Cosmic latte is the average color of the universe.
  19. The silk of Darwin’s bark spiders is ten times stronger than kevlar.
  20. Because of the climate crisis (melting glaciers). Switzerland’s cartographers are having to redraw the country’s topological maps. “Only three cartographers at the agency [are] allowed to tinker with the Swiss Alps.”
  21. Warmlines are telephone/chat hotlines for people who aren’t in crisis but just need to vent or talk to someone.
  22. “Planning the Holocaust took all of 90 minutes.”
  23. “With the exception of a few native species that live in rotting logs and around wetlands, there are not supposed to be any earthworms east of the Great Plains and north of the Mason-Dixon Line.”
  24. A final score never seen before in NFL history is called a scorigami. There were 6 scorigamis in the 2021 season and a total of 1047 unique scores ever.
  25. Actually, it’s “E.E. Cummings” and not “e.e. cummings”.
  26. In a small 5-year study of basic income in Hudson, NY, “employment among the participants went from 29% to 63%” and they reported better health and personal relationships with others.
  27. In the 90s, Meat Loaf coached a JV girls softball team in a small Connecticut town. “To the scrappy group of girls he was trying to mold into softball players, he was Coach Meat.”
  28. The world’s coldest marathon is held in Yakutia, Siberia. 2022’s winner ran it in 3h 22m; the temperature was -53°C.
  29. In January 2022 in Norway, about 84% of new cars sold were EVs. That compares to 53% in Jan 2021.
  30. A 70s board game called The Campaign for North Africa takes around 1500 hours (~62 days) to complete.
  31. Saturn’s rings are disappearing. We only have another 300 million years to enjoy them.
  32. Wisconsin is home to a local delicacy called the cannibal sandwich (raw ground beef and raw onions, sandwiched between two pieces of bread).
  33. There are now 8 billion people in the world.
  34. Due to the lull in human activity, some birds changed their birdsong during the pandemic.
  35. The Pointer Sisters sang Sesame Street’s “Pinball Countdown” song. “One two three four five…six seven eight nine ten…eleven twelve.”
  36. Gun violence recently surpassed car accidents as the leading cause of death for American children. We’re now living in the era of the gun.”

You can check out last year’s list here.

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36 days ago
Santa Monica, California
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The Best Runs You Took in 2022

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36 days ago
These stories make me want to run 🏃‍♂️
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